Six Sigma is a process used by many project managers who are working to refine their management philosophy and lead their teams in the right direction. Six Sigma is the process of improving a process to have as few challenges as possible. One of the most essential terms in this process is called Defects per Unit of Six Sigma, which is important for more advanced Project Management certifications. You can learn about the Six Sigma process by taking an online course or reading this article so that you can get more familiar with terminology.
Let’s explore the most important DPU points:
- “Defect” and what this word means for Six Sigma
- Defects per unit
- Three steps to calculate Defects per Unit Six Sigma
- Formula and Illustration for Defects per Unit
What is the definition of “Defect” in Six Sigma?
First, we will explore what the word “defect” means when it comes to Six Sigma. Defects are important to this process because the ultimate desired outcome is to improve processes and increase customer happiness by reducing the defect rate in products and services. Defects should meet the SMART criteria in order to apply to this process.
What is a defect you ask? A defect is anything outside of customer expectations, meaning any event that does not meet requirements in a product or service. Six Sigma processes ensure that the customer outlines what quality means to them so that outcomes will not be agreed upon by both parties.
An example of a defect is a charging cord that is not the right length. The customer required a 5-foot-long charging cord, but the project team produced a cord that was 3 feet long. Since there was an agreed-upon requirement outlined in the project scope, the project team must submit a change request and revise the product.
A defect can mean the failure of an entire process, product, or service. Even a loose thread in a charging cord can count as a defect! The cord will be classified as defective if one or more clients do not purchase the product due to the defect.
What are Defects per Unit?
Defects per Unit explain the amount a product or process is performing, based on the number of defects the item has. DPU outlines the average number of defects per sample in the testing phase. DPU is the average unit containing one or more defects and is used to place defects under careful consideration.
The word “unit” is also heavily used in project management, specifically when studying Six Sigma. A unit is an item that is in the processing stage. DPU counts each unit as defective or not, but in this case, defective refers to the units that carry one or more defects.
How to calculate DPU?
When handling DPU calculation, there are a few things you need to remember. Here are the three steps needed to calculate DPU accurately.
- Decide on the number of units you will sample. This number should be managed but also proceed enough data on if the inventory passes the final check or not.
- Next, you will need to count the number of defects that appear in the sample group.
- The third step is where you will calculate the DPU as a decimal and then convert it into a percentage.
Now, we will sample how to calculate DPU in an example problem. If Mrs. Y has a greeting card business, each card will be considered a unit. 60 orders of greeting cards have been selected and inspected for defects. 5 orders have a problem and there are a total of 3 defects out of every 60 orders.
Now, it’s time to calculate the DPU. This formula consists of the total number of defects divided by the number of units sampled. The DPU will be a conclusion of the probability of the product having a defect.
When studying project management, DPU is an important term to master. It is a measure of the probability of challenges occurring in a project. The number of DPU will help you realize if you have improved your process or if there are still issues occurring. DPU will allow you to analyze how well you are able to meet the expectations outlined by a customer.
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